亚利桑那 VS 联邦政府（法）
1. 针对主旨发问： what is the passage mainly about? (summarize、 main idea)
2. 考查文章标题： which of the following could be the best title for the passage?
起承转合型： BPES 型
例 1 （2011 英语一 Text 2）
① When Liam McGee departed as president of Bank of America in August, his explanation was surprisingly straight up. ② Rather than cloaking his exit in the usual vague excuses, he came right out and said he was leaving “to pursue my goal of running a company.” ③ Broadcasting his ambition was “very much my decision,”McGee says. ④ Within two weeks, he was talking for the first time with the board of Hartford Financial Services Group, which named him CEO and chairman on September 29.
第一段： Liam McGee 为例引出高管裸辞的现象。
⑤McGee says leaving without a position lined up gave him time to reflect on what kind of company he wanted to run. ⑥ It also sent a clear message to the outside world about his aspirations. ⑦And McGee isn’t alone. ⑧In recent weeks the No.2executives at Avon and American Express quit with the explanation that they were looking for a CEO post. ⑨As boards scrutinize succession plans in response to shareholder pressure, executives who don’t get the nod also may wish to move on. ⑩A turbulent business environment also has senior managers cautious of letting vague pronouncements cloud their reputations.
⑪As the first signs of recovery begin to take hold, deputy chiefs may be more willing to make the jump without a net. ⑫In the third quarter, CEO turnover was down 23%from a year ago as nervous boards stuck with the leaders they had, according to Liberum Research. ⑬ As the economy picks up, opportunities will abound for aspiring leaders.
⑭The decision to quit a senior position to look for a better one is unconventional. ⑮For years executives and headhunters have adhered to the rule that the most attractive CEO candidates are the ones who must be poached. ⑯Says Korn /Ferry senior partner Dennis Carey: “I can’t think of a single search I’ve done where a board has not instructed me to look at sitting CEOs first.”
⑰Those who jumped without a job haven’t always landed in top positions quickly. ⑱Ellen Marram quit as chief of Tropicana a decade ago, saying she wanted to be aCEO.⑲It was a year before she became head of a tiny Internet-based commodities exchange. ⑳Robert Willumstad left Citigroup in 2005 with ambitions to be a CEO.㉑He finally took that post at a major financial institution three years later.
㉒Many recruiters say the old disgrace is fading for top performers. ㉓The financial crisis has made it more acceptable to be between jobs or to leave a bad one. ㉔“Thetraditional rule was it’s safer to stay where you are, but that’s been fundamentally inverted,” says one headhunter. ㉕“The people who’ve been hurt the worst are those who’ve stayed too long.”
30. Which of the following is the best title for the text?
［A］ CEOs: Where to Go?
［B］ CEOs: All the Way Up?
［C］ Top Managers Jump Without a Net
［D］ The Only Way Out for Top Performers
例 2 （2010 英语二 Text 1）
①The longest bull run in a century of art-market history ended on a dramatic note with a sale of 56 works by Damien Hirst, Beautiful Inside My Head Forever, atSotheby’s in London on September 15th 2008.②All but two pieces sold, fetching more than ￡70m, a record for a sale by a single artist. ③It was a last victory. ④As the auctioneer called out bids, in New York one of the oldest banks on Wall Street,Lehman Brothers, filed for bankruptcy.
⑤The world art market had already been losing momentum for a while after rising bewilderingly since 2003. ⑥ At its peak in 2007 it was worth some $65 billion,reckons Clare McAndrew, founder of Arts Economics, a research firm—double the figure five years earlier. ⑦ Since then it may have come down to $50 billion. ⑧ Butthe market generates interest far beyond its size because it brings together great wealth, enormous egos, greed, passion and controversy in a way matched by fewother industries.
第二段： 2003 年以来艺术品市场的发展趋势。
⑨ In the weeks and months that followed Mr. Hirst’s sale, spending of any sort became deeply unfashionable. ⑩ In the art world that meant collectors stayed away from galleries and salerooms. ⑪Sales of contemporary art fell by two-thirds, and inthe most overheated sector， they were down by nearly 90% in the year to November 2008. ⑫ Within weeks the world’s two biggest auction houses, Sotheby’s andChristie’s, had to pay out nearly $200 million in guarantees to clients who had placed works for sale with them.
⑬The current downturn in the art market is the worst since the Japanese stopped buying Impressionists at the end of 1989. ⑭This time experts reckon that prices are about 40% down on their peak on average, though some have been far more fluctuant.⑮But Edward Dolman, Christie’s chief executive, says: “I’m pretty confident we’reat the bottom.”
⑯What makes this slump different from the last, he says, is that there are still buyers in the market. ⑰Almost everyone who was interviewed for this special report saidthat the biggest problem at the moment is not a lack of demand but a lack of good work to sell. ⑱The three Ds—death, debt and divorce—still deliver works of art to the market. ⑲But anyone who does not have to sell is keeping away, waiting forconfidence to return.
25.The most appropriate title for this text could be_______。
［A］ Fluctuation of Art Prices
［B］ Up-to-date Art Auctions
［C］ Art Market in Decline
［D］ Shifted Interest in Arts
1. According to paragraph/the text, 具体信息？
2. Which of the following is true according to…?
3. It can be learned from paragraph that…
4.具体信息+because/because of/due to…
例 1 （2011 英语一 Text 1）
Devoted concertgoers who reply that recordings are no substitute for live performance are missing the point. For the time, attention, and money of the art-loving public, classical instrumentalists must compete not only with opera houses, dance troupes,theater companies, and museums, but also with the recorded performances of the great classical musicians of the 20th century. These recordings are cheap, available everywhere, and very often much higher in artistic quality than today’s live performances; moreover, they can be “consumed” at a time and place of the listener’s choosing. The widespread availability of such recordings has thus brought about acrisis in the institution of the traditional classical concert.
24. According to the text, which of the following is true of recordings?
［A］ They are often inferior to live concerts in quality.
［B］ They are easily accessible to the general public.
［C］ They help improve the quality of music.
［D］ They have only covered masterpieces.
例 2 （2011 年 英语二 Text 1）
Ruth Simmons joined Goldman Sachs's board as an outside director in January 2000;a year later she became president of Brown University. For the rest of the decade she apparently managed both roles without attracting much criticism. But by the end of2009 Ms. Simmons was under fire for having sat on Goldman's compensation committee; how could she have let those enormous bonus payouts pass unremarked? By February the next year Ms. Simmons had left the board. The position was justtaking up too much time, she said.
21. According to Paragraph 1, Ms. Simmons was criticized for________.
［A］ gaining excessive profits
［B］ failing to fulfill her duty
［C］ refusing to make compromises
［D］ leaving the board in tough times
21. 根据第一段， Simmons 女士因 ______ 而遭到批评。
1. It can be inferred/implied that...
2. Which of the following can be inferred from…
3. The author indicates that…
例（2012 英语一 Text 3）
①Consequently, discovery claims should be thought of as protoscience. Similar to newly staked mining claims, they are full of potential. ②But it takes collective scrutiny and acceptance to transform a discovery claim into a mature discovery. ③This is the credibility process, through which the individual researcher’s me, here, now becomes the community’s anyone, anywhere, anytime. ④Objective knowledge is the goal, not the starting point.
32. It can be inferred from Paragraph 2 that credibility process requires ______.
［A］ strict inspection
［B］ shared efforts
［C］ individual wisdom
［D］ persistent innovation
32. 从第二段可推知， “取信过程”需要 _____ 。
1. The word/phrase “…” most probably means ______.
2. The word/phrase “…” is closest in meaning to ______.
4.注意： 一般来说， 四个备选答案在抛开上下文的情况下都能使命题句通顺。但是联系上下文之后，就只有一个选项能满足行文逻辑了。
例 1 （2011 英语一 Text 2）
The decision to quit a senior position to look for a better one is unconventional. For years executives and headhunters have adhered to the rule that the most attractive CEO candidates are the ones who must be poached. Says Korn/Ferry senior partner Dennis Carey: “I can’t think of a single search I’ve done where a board has not instructed me to look at sitting CEOs first.”
28. The word “poached” (Line 2, Paragraph 4) most probably means ______.
［A］ approved of
［B］ attended to
［C］ hunted for
［D］ guarded against
28. 第四段第二行中 poached 一词的含义最有可能的意思是 ______ 。
例 2 （2015 年 英语二 Text 1）
But it’s not just a gender thing. At work, people pretty much know what they’re supposed to be doing: working, making money, doing the tasks they have to do in order to draw an income. The bargain is very pure: Employee puts in hours of physical or mental labor and employee draws out life-sustaining moola.
24.The word “moola”（Line 4， Para 4） most probably means ______.
24. “moola”（第四段，第四行）一词最有可能的含义是 ______.
1. The author’s attitude toward… is ______.
2. The author holds/ believes/ suggests/agrees that… is ______.
3. What’s the author’s attitude toward… ?
4. 人名+would most likely agree that _____.
5. 人名+attitude toward… is ______.
例 1 （2012 英语一 Text 1）
Far less certain, however, is how successfully experts and bureaucrats can select our peer groups and steer their activities in virtuous directions. It’s like the teacher who breaks up the troublemakers in the back row by pairing them with better-behaved classmates. The tactic never really works. And that’s the problem with a social cure engineered from the outside: in the real world, as in school, we insist on choosing our own friends.
25. The author suggests in the last paragraph that the effect of peer pressure is______.
25. 作者在最后一段暗示同侪压力的影响是______ 。
例 2 （2017 年 英语二 Text 1）
①Indeed, there is something a little absurd in the state getting involved in the planning of such a fundamentally “grassroots”, concept as community sports associations. ②If there is a role for government, it should really be getting involved in providing common goods—making sure there is space for playing fields and the money to pave tennis and netball courts, and encouraging the provision of all these activities in schools. ③But successive governments have presided over selling green spaces, squeezing money from local authorities and declining attention on sport in education. ④Instead of wordy, worthy strategies, future governments need to do more to provide the conditions for sport to thrive. ⑤Or at least not make them worse.
25. The author’s attitude to what UK governments have done for sports is______.
25. 对于英国政府关于运动的作为作者的态度是 _________.
1. … is cited as an example of ______.
2. The example of … shows that ______.
3. … is mentioned to (show that) ______.
4. … is quoted to indicate that _____.
4.寻找 for example/for instance/such as/时间节点/地点等标志词汇。
例 1 （2015 英语一 Text 2）
But the justices should not swallow California’s argument whole. New, disruptive technology sometimes demands novel applications of the Constitution’s protections. Orin Kerr, a law professor, compares the explosion and accessibility of digital information in the 21st century with the establishment of automobile use as a virtual necessity of life in the 20th: The justices had to specify novel rules for the new personal domain of the passenger car then; they must sort out how the Fourth Amendment applies to digital information now.
30. Orin Kerr’s comparison is quoted to indicate that______.
[A] the Constitution should be implemented flexibly.
[B] new technology requires reinterpretation of the Constitution.
[C] California’s argument violates principles of the Constitution.
[D] principles of the Constitution should never be altered.
30. （作者）引用了 Orin Kerr 的对比，是用来表明______ 。
例 2 （2013 年 英语二 Text 1）
Yes, new technology has been eating jobs forever, and always will. But there’s been acceleration. As Davidson notes, “In the 10 years ending in 2009, U.S. factories shed workers so fast that they erased almost all the gains of the previous 70 years; roughly one out of every three manufacturing jobs—about 6 million in total—disappeared.”
23. The quotation in Paragraph 4 explains that ______.
［A］ gains of technology have been erased
［B］ job opportunities are disappearing at a high speed
［C］ factories are making much less money than before
［D］ new jobs and services have been offered
23. 第四段的引言说明 ______。
In the following part immediately after this text, the author will most probably focus on ______.
例 （2010 英语二 Text 2）
In short ,the image that best represents the current crisis is the stereotypical cartoon scene of a man sitting at the breakfast table with a newspaper held up in front of his face， while a woman glares at the back of it, wanting to talk.
30. In the following part immediately after this text, the author will most probablyfocus on _____.
［A］ a vivid account of the new book Divorce Talk
［B］ a detailed description of the stereotypical cartoon
［C］ other possible reasons for a high divorce rate in the U.S.
［D］ a brief introduction to the political scientist Andrew Hacker
30. 在文章接下来的部分，作者最可能专注于 ______。
［D］对政治科学家 Andrew Hacker 的简单介绍
看真题： 2019 英语一 text 1
21. According to Paragraph 1, one motive in imposing the new rule is the____.
22. Alfred Marshall is quoted to indicate____.
引用 Alfred Marshall 的话用于表明 ______.
23. It is argued that the influence of transient investment on public companies can be____.
24. The US and France examples are used to illustrate____.
25. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?
A. Failure of Quarterly Capitalism
B. Patience as a Corporate Virtue
C. Decisiveness Required of Top Executives
D.Frustration of Risk-taking Bankers
3. 解题时， 先读题干， 带着问题返回原文， 二次精读原文后再看选项， 最后经过比对得出答案。
4. 实在不能确定时再考虑使用技巧， 不可本末倒置。
“So few authors have brains enough or literary gift enough to keep their own end up in journalism, ” Newman wrote, “that I am tempted to define ‘journalism’ as ‘a term of contempt applied by writers who are not read to writers who are’.” ( 2010 英一真题）
23. Which of the following would Shaw and Newman most probably agree on?
［A］ It is writers’ duty to fulfill journalistic goals.
［B］ It is contemptible for writers to be journalists.
［C］ Writers are likely to be tempted into journalism.
［D］ Not all writers are capable of journalistic writing.
①The rough guide to marketing success used to be that you got what you paid for. ② No longer. ③While traditional “paid” media—such as television commercials and print advertisements—still play a major role, companies today can exploit many alternative forms of media. （2011 英一真题）
35. Which of the following is the text mainly about?
［A］ Alternatives to conventional paid media.
［B］ Conflict between hijacked and earned media.
［C］ Dominance of hijacked media.
［D］ Popularity of owned media.
2010 英语一 Text 1
①Of all the changes that have taken place in English-language newspapers during the past quarter-century, perhaps the most far-reaching has been the inexorable decline in the scope and seriousness of their arts coverage.
② It is difficult to the point of impossibility for the average reader under the age of forty to imagine a time when high-quality arts criticism could be found in most big-city newspapers. ③Yet a considerable number of the most significant collections of criticism published in the 20th century consisted in large part of newspaper reviews. ④To read such books today is to marvel at the fact that their learned contents were once deemed suitable for publication in general-circulation dailies.
21. It is indicated in Paragraphs 1 and 2 that ______.
［A］ arts criticism has disappeared from big-city newspapers
［B］ English-language newspapers used to carry more arts reviews
［C］ high-quality newspapers retain a large body of readers
［D］ young readers doubt the suitability of criticism on dailies
② It is difficult to the point of impossibility for the average reader under the age of forty to imagine a time when high-quality arts criticism could be found in most big-city newspapers.
It is difficult to the point of impossibility for college graduates to imagine a time when job hunting was a piece of cake a decade ago. (大学生找工作难） It is difficult to the point of impossibility for people now to imagine a time when pure blue sky could be found in most big cities in China 20 years ago. (天不蓝了）
1.take place 发生
2.quarter-century n. 25 年， 1/4 世纪
3.far-reaching a. 深远的，广泛的
4.inexorable a. 无情的；不可阻挡的
exorable a. 可说服的；可用恳求打动的
5.decline n. 下降，衰退
6.scope n. 范围
7.seriousness n. 严肃性，认真度
8.coverage n. 范围，规模；（新闻）报道
9.average a. 平均的，普通的
10.criticism n. 批评，评论
11.considerable a. 相当大（或多）的
12.significant a. 重要的；有意义的
13.collection n. 收集， ......合集
14.consis of 由......组成
15.marvel at 对......感到惊奇
16.content n. 内容；主题
17.be deemed 被视为，被认为
18.circulation n. 流通发型
It is difficult to the point of impossibility for the average reader under the age of forty to imagine a time when high-quality arts criticism could be found in most big-city newspapers.
对于 40 岁以下的普通读者而言，他们很难想象在大多数大城市的主流报纸上可以读到高质量的艺术评论的那一年代。